This report presents time trends and income analyses using Welsh data from the first nine years of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

Food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status compared with recommendations (Year 5 to 9; 2012/13 to 2016/17)

  • Consumption of 5 A Day fruit and vegetables was below recommendation in all age/sex groups. 
  • The vast majority of children and adults did not meet recommended guidelines on intake of free sugars.
  • Average daily consumption of red and processed meat exceeded the current maximum recommendation for adults.
  • The vast majority in all age groups were not meeting recommendations for fibre.
  • There was evidence of low intake of a number of vitamins and minerals.

Trends over time (Years 1 to 9; 2008/09 to 2016/17)

  • Overall, trends over time in Wales were similar to those seen in the UK as a whole.
  • There was little change in fruit and vegetable or fibre intake over the nine-year period.
  • Intake of red and processed meat showed a downward trend over time. A downward trend was also seen for the proportion of young people consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks.
  • There was a fall in total fat intake as a proportion of food energy for older men in Wales. This fall was greater than that seen in the UK as a whole.
  • There was a downward trend in most vitamins and minerals for many age/sex groups.
  • There was a downward trend for sodium intake.
  • For folate status, there was a decrease in all age groups. The decline in folate status seen among women of childbearing age in the UK was less clear in Wales.

Equivalised household income (Years 5 to 9; 2012/13 to 2016/17)

  • As for the UK as a whole, higher income was associated with better nutritional status across a range of biomarkers.
  • There was evidence of greater intake of fruit and vegetables and oily fish with increasing income.
  • Free sugars intake as a proportion of total energy decreased significantly with increasing income for adults aged 19 to 64.
  • There was no consistent income pattern across age/sex groups in total fat and saturated fatty acid intake as a proportion of energy.
     

Reports

National Diet and Nutrition Survey: results for years 5 to 9 of the rolling programme for Wales and time trend and income analysis (years 1 to 9)
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National Diet and Nutrition Survey: results for years 5 to 9 of the rolling programme for Wales and time trend and income analysis (years 1 to 9) (summary)
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Appendix A: dietary data collection and editing for Year 9
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Appendix AA: calculation of free sugars and AOAC fibre
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Appendix B: methodology for Year 9
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Appendix C: participant documents (interview stage)
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Appendix D: interviewer (stage 1) overview of elements and documents
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Appendix E: food and drink diary
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Appendix F: self-completion booklets
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Appendix G: participant documents (nurse stage)
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Appendix H: consent and laboratory forms
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Appendix I: nurse (stage 2) overview and documents
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Appendix J: examples of feedback letters
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Appendix L: measurement protocols
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Appendix M: the spot urine sample (collecting and processing for urinary iodine measurement)
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Appendix N: methods of urinary iodine analysis and quality control
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Appendix O: priority order of blood analytes
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Appendix P: the blood sample (collecting and processing the blood)
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Appendix Q: methods of blood analysis, quality control and quality assessment
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Appendix R: main and subsidiary food groups and disaggregation categories
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Appendix T: topics covered in this published report and archived data
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Appendix U: Wales statistical methods for the trends over time (Years 1 to 9) and socioeconomic (Years 5 to 9) regression analysis
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Appendix X: misreporting in the National Diet and NDNS RP
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Data

Datasets and interactive tools

Chapter 5: time trend analysis for selected foods and nutrients
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Chapter 6: equivalised income for selected foods and nutrients
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Chapter 7: time trend analysis for selected blood analytes
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Chapter 8: equivalised income for selected blood and urinary analytes
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Appendix O: priority order of blood Analytes
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Appendix U: time trends analysis for Wales
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Descriptive statistics and tables of plots
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Contact

Chris Roberts

Tel: 0300 025 6543

Media

Tel: 0300 025 8099