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Pollution prevention

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Industrial smoke pollution

Pollution from industrial processes in Wales has been increasingly controlled by law over the past 150 years.

The main legislation is the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2016 (external link), which cover around 1,650 businesses in Wales.

Under this law, many different potentially polluting activities must have a permit to operate. Most of the larger industrial sites are regulated by Natural Resources Wales (NRW) and are known as ‘Part A(1) installations’. NRW also regulates other activities, including ‘waste operations’ and ‘waste mobile plant’.

Some activities, however, are regulated by local authorities. These are:

  • Part A(2) installations,
  • Part B installations,
  • Part B mobile plant,
  • Small waste incineration Plant,
  • Solvent emission activities.    

Regulators recover the costs of regulating these activities through charging schemes. Find out more about charges for local authority and NRW regulated sites.