1. Main points
- The number of journeys undertaken on local bus services in Wales, and the total distance travelled, have stabilised in recent years. This followed a long term decline in bus usage.
- 101.9 million passenger journeys were undertaken on local buses in Wales in 2018-19 covering a total of 101.8 million vehicle kilometres (chart 2).
- The number of drivers decreased in 2018-19 compared to 2017-18 whilst vehicles in operation remained similar.
- There was a 1.2% decrease in drivers to 3,754, and the number of vehicles remained similar at 2,449 (charts 3 and 5).
- Bus fares in Wales increased by 3.2% from 2018 to 2019, higher than the UK consumer price inflation rate over the same period (chart 6).
- Taxi registrations fell by 1.0% while private hire vehicle registrations increased by 10.0% in 2019.
- In Wales, 4,956 taxis and 5,429 private hire vehicles were licensed as of March 2019.
2. The local bus industry in Wales
Local bus services are defined as those where passengers are carried ‘at separate fares over short distances’. Bus services are a vital part of Welsh economic and social life. The 2011 Census showed that 23% of the population of Wales had no access to a car or van, and many people rely on bus services for travel to work, for hospital appointments, visiting friends, shopping and accessing leisure services.
During 2018-19, there were 101.9 million passenger journeys on local buses in Wales, with the services covering 101.8 million vehicle kilometres. Three quarters (74.5%) of the distance was accounted for by commercial routes (chart 2).
The total distance travelled in 2018-19 was very similar to the previous year, following a long term downward trend since 2010-11. The latest figure is 19% lower than the distance travelled in 2008-09, a fall driven by a large decrease in the distance travelled on subsidised services (down 37%). Distances travelled on commercial services fell by 10% over the same period.
Compared to 2017-18 distance travelled by subsidised services increased by 9.3% in 2018-19 whilst commercial services distance fell by 1.4%. In some cases, withdrawn commercial services have been replaced with subsidised services, which may have contributed to these latest changes.
Broadly, the long term trend in distance travelled has tracked the trend in numbers of buses in operation (chart 3). After long term declines in buses and distance covered, the number of buses has increased slightly in the latest year whilst the total distance has stabilised.
There were 2,449 locally operated vehicles in Wales in 2018-19, an increase of 2 compared with the previous year. Since 2008-09 vehicle numbers have fallen by 553 (18.0%). These vehicles were operated on 1,539 registered bus routes (as of 31 March 2018).
The number of individual passenger journeys has followed a similar trend to that of distance travelled since 2007-08. Journey numbers have been relatively stable since 2014-15, and in the latest year were 22% lower than in 2008-09. Looking further back, there has been a fall of 37% between 1988-89 and 2018-19 (chart 4).
In 2018-19 the local bus industry employed 4,834 staff, 78% of which (3,754) were drivers. There was a 1.2% decrease in the number of drivers in the latest year (chart 5) and a 5.4% increase for all staff combined. Over the long term there has been a slight downward trend in driver numbers and all staff numbers. Broadly, trends in drivers and all staff numbers are similar to the trend in buses in operation.
 Separate fares are where each passenger makes a separate payment to use the service. Though journeys are defined as ‘short distances’ they may be of any overall length, as long as passengers can get off within 15 miles of the place at which they were picked up.
3. Local bus services: fares
Chart 6 shows how bus fares in Wales and Great Britain have changed since 1995. Figures used are in current prices (actual prices paid). Bus fares in Wales have increased at a very similar rate to Great Britain, though in recent years fares have increased slightly more in Great Britain than in Wales. Bus fares have consistently increased at a rate greater than inflation (as measured by CPIH). This is shown by the steeper trajectories of the fare increases compared with the shallower slope of the dotted line for CPIH. Since 1995 fares in Wales increased by 165%, fares in Great Britain increased by 173% and CPIH increased by 62%. In the latest year there was a 3.2% increase in Wales and a 3.3% increase in Great Britain, both higher than the inflation rate of 2.3%.
 Consumer prices index including owner occupiers’ housing costs.
4. Local bus services: journeys
Wales accounts for a small proportion of the local bus market in Great Britain, with just 2.1% of total passenger journeys in 2018-19. Wales has a 4.9% share of the population in Great Britain, meaning that bus journeys are relatively less common in Wales than across Great Britain as a whole.
Chart 7 shows trends in bus travel in the countries of Great Britain since 1998-99. The trend in Wales was broadly similar to that seen in Scotland. The overall trend for England is different because of the distortive effect on London, where there were significant increases in bus journeys up to 2008-09.
The number of passenger journeys per person has been decreasing across Great Britain since 2008-09. However, Wales recorded a 1.5% increase in 2018-19 compared with the previous year. In Wales, the number of journeys per person is less than half of the rate in Scotland and England (chart 8). This rate has remained stable though in Wales since 2014-15, whereas the rate has decreased in England and Scotland over the same period.
5. Local bus services: distance covered
Total distance travelled in Wales by bus represents 4.4% of all vehicle kilometres in Great Britain for 2018-19 (chart 9).
In 2018-19 the total distance travelled in Wales was 2.8% higher than in 2017-18, while there were decreases in England (down 10%) and Scotland (down 7%). Over the long term there have been decreases in distances travelled in all three countries. Since 2005-06, the percentage decrease has been greatest in Wales (down 20%) compared with 10.4% in England and 10.9% in Scotland (chart 9). However, compared to last year Wales distance covered has increased compared to other regions.
6. Licensed taxis and private hire vehicles in Wales
People can apply for a taxi licence, a private hire vehicle (PHV) licence or a dual licence. A taxi licence enables the holder to pick up passengers on the streets or from designated taxi ranks. A private hire vehicle licence enables the holder to pick up passengers who have made a booking with a licensed private hire operator. A dual licence enables the holder to drive either a taxi or a private hire vehicle.
In 2019, there were 4,956 licensed taxis in Wales and 5,429 PHVs. In comparison, there were a total of 12,350 driver licences issued. Taxi licences have been stable for some time and PHVs have increased in recent years. The total number of driver licences held in Wales has generally at 2011 levels (chart 10).
There were 5,429 private hire fleet licensed vehicles in operation, with 1,783 drivers licensed and 789 operators licensed. There were 10,113 drivers licensed for both a taxi and private hire vehicle in Wales; with 34.7% of these from the Cardiff and Swansea local authorities.
The number of taxis and private hire vehicles licensed, by local authority, in Wales can be accessed from StatsWales. Three of the local authorities (Wrexham, Merthyr Tydfil and Blaenau Gwent) issued no dual licences and instead licensed taxi drivers and private hire vehicle drivers separately.
7. Quality information
The survey covers only those operators operating local bus services registered with the Traffic Commissioner.
Local bus service
Local services are scheduled stopping services registered with the Traffic Commissioner. A local service is defined as a bus service using Public Service Vehicles to carry passengers at separate fares over short distances. The route can be of any total length, as long as throughout its length passengers can get off within 24.15 kilometres (15 miles) (measured in a straight line) of the place where they were picked up. Each passenger must make a separate payment to the driver, conductor or agent in order to use the service. Excursions and tours need only be registered if separate fares are paid, the whole journey is within a 24.15 km (15 mile) radius of the starting point and they run one or more times a week for at least 6 weeks in a row. Schools and works services may be local bus services if the users pay a separate fare but do not need to be registered if someone other than the bus operator is responsible for arranging the journey, and the journey is not advertised beforehand to the general public, and all passengers travel to or from the same place, and passengers pay the same fare no matter how far they travel.
A count of the total number of boardings of each vehicle, so a trip which requires a change from one bus to another would be counted as two journeys in these figures. Figures do not include children under 5 years of age.
Distance (kilometres) run by local buses in service. This includes only ‘live’ (i.e. service) miles and not ‘dead’ running e.g. from depots to the start of a route.
Most of the information presented here is derived from annual returns made to the Department for Transport (DfT) by a sample of 700 holders of Public Service Vehicle operators’ licences (‘the PSV survey’). This survey provides information on passenger journeys, vehicle miles, passenger receipts and operating costs. Separate, smaller surveys managed by DfT collect information about fare changes, service reliability and quarterly patronage from the larger bus operators.
Full details of the data sources and methods used can be found in the guidance on the GOV.UK website.
DfT bus statistics represent the most comprehensive single source of official data on the bus industry in Great Britain, and provide data which is used in monitoring trends, developing policy and providing accountability for the subsidy provided to the industry at a high level.
The PSV survey uses imputation techniques to derive key figures for operators who were either not selected in the sample for that year, or who did not respond. On occasion, imputations for earlier years can be improved using directly-reported data for later years. Minor revisions to back-data can occur as a result, although trends are rarely affected substantively.
For the key indicators (passenger journeys and vehicle miles operated) the data provided by operator’s cover around, or above, 90% of the total figure, with the remainder imputed. Comparison with other sources suggests that, at aggregate (Great Britain) level, the statistics are likely to provide a reasonably robust measure of levels and broad trends.
However, figures representing smaller groups of operators and single year on year changes should be treated with caution as these are more susceptible to measurement errors (for example, an inaccurate return by an operator, or a change in an operator’s method of producing the figures required) which are more likely to even out at the national level. For this reason, regional, and particularly local authority, level figures should be interpreted with caution.
Timeliness and punctuality
DfT collected data from operators during the summer 2019 for publication in January 2020.
Accessibility and clarity
Comparability and coherence
Many of these statistics have been collected on a broadly comparable basis from operators for many years. However, following revisions to the methodology used to compile the published figures, 2004-05 is the earliest year for which figures are comparable on exactly the same basis.
The DfT produces statistics on the local bus sector in Great Britain. It presents information on:
- passenger journeys
- vehicle miles
- levels of revenue
- costs and government support
- the vehicle fleet
- staff employed
- other indicators including punctuality
The annual publication Bus and coach travel' is produced by Transport Scotland'. It brings together a range of bus and coach data to provide a more comprehensive and complete understanding of travel trends and behaviours across these modes. Data presented include DfT Scottish bus operator data, Transport Scotland concessionary bus fare data and further analysis of bus-related information collected by the Scottish Household Survey (SHS).
The annual publication 'Northern Ireland Transport Statistics 2018-2019 produced by Department for Infrastructure in Northern Ireland' contains a chapter on public transport.
National Statistics status
The United Kingdom Statistics Authority has designated these statistics as National Statistics, in accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007 and signifying compliance with the Code of Practice for Statistics.
National Statistics status means that official statistics meet the highest standards of trustworthiness, quality and public value.
All official statistics should comply with all aspects of the Code of Practice for Statistics. They are awarded National Statistics status following an assessment by the UK Statistics Authority’s regulatory arm. The Authority considers whether the statistics meet the highest standards of Code compliance, including the value they add to public decisions and debate. The designation of these statistics as National Statistics was confirmed in February 2013 following a full assessment against the Code of Practice.
Since the latest review by the Office for Statistics Regulation, we have continued to comply with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics, and have made the following improvements:
- Eliminated un-necessary tables from bulletin as they are freely available on StatsWales
- Improved visuals and commentary of long terms trends for all public service vehicles
It is Welsh Government’s responsibility to maintain compliance with the standards expected of National Statistics. If we become concerned about whether these statistics are still meeting the appropriate standards, we will discuss any concerns with the Authority promptly.
Well-being of Future Generations Act
The Well-being of Future Generations Act 2015 is about improving the social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being of Wales. The Act puts in place seven wellbeing goals for Wales. These are for a more equal, prosperous, resilient, healthier and globally responsible Wales, with cohesive communities and a vibrant culture and thriving Welsh language. Under section (10)(1) of the Act, the Welsh Ministers must (a) publish indicators ('national indicators') that must be applied for the purpose of measuring progress towards the achievement of the wellbeing goals, and (b) lay a copy of the national indicators before the National Assembly. The 46 national indicators were laid in March 2016 and this release does not include any of the 46 national indicators.
Information on the indicators, along with narratives for each of the well-being goals and associated technical information is available in the Wellbeing of Wales report.
Further information on the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015.
The statistics included in this release could also provide supporting narrative to the national indicators and be used by public services boards in relation to their local wellbeing assessments and local wellbeing plans.