Skip to content

Academic achievement by pupil characteristics

Bookmark and Share
  • Release date: 31 January 2017
  • Period covered: 2016
  • Next update: January 2018
Data includes information by gender, ethnicity, English as an additional language, special educational needs, absenteeism and month of birth.
This statistical first release reports on academic achievement by pupil characteristics. It uses pupil-level data that links data on attainment and examination information at Foundation Phase and Key Stages 2 to 4 to pupil characteristics from the Pupil Level Annual School Census (PLASC) and Pupils’ Attendance Record.

For Foundation Phase, we use the Foundation Phase Indicator (FPI) to measure progress. For Key Stages 2 and 3, the Core Subject Indicator (CSI) is used. For Key Stage 4, we mainly use the Level 2 Threshold including English or Welsh First Language and Maths (L2EWM) to measure progress. In this release, unless otherwise stated, Key Stage 4 results refer to L2EWM. For full definitions of these indicators please refer to the Key Quality Information section of this report.

Key points

Generally, academic achievement for the FPI, CSI and L2EWM in 2016 by:

  • gender is higher for girls
  • ethnicity is higher for pupils from a Chinese or Chinese British ethnic background
  • English as an additional language (EAL) is higher for pupils classified as ‘competent’ or ‘fluent’
  • Special Educational Needs (SEN) is higher for pupils without SEN
  • absenteeism is higher for pupils with lower absence rates
  • month of birth is higher for pupils born earlier in the academic year.


Key Stage 4 cohort for 2016 is now based on pupils who were in Year 11. Up to 2015, the cohort is based on pupils aged 15 at the start of the academic year.


Tel: 0300 025 5060

Tel: 0300 025 8099

Keep up to date @StatisticsWales@StatisticsWales Sign up to our newsletterSign up to our newsletter